The Nongovernmental International Panel on Climate Change (NIPCC) is an international panel of scientists and scholars who have come together to understand the causes and consequences of climate change. The group initially was created by S. Fred Singer at a meeting in Milan in 2003. It is now a project of three organizations: Center for the Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Change, The Heartland Institute, and Science and Environmental Policy Project (SEPP).
NIPCC has no affiliation with and receives no funding from any government agency. It is wholly independent of political pressures and influences and not predisposed to conform to any agenda other than pursuing the truth. Such organizational structure and purpose represents a stark contrast to that exhibited by the United Nations’ Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), which is government-sponsored and controlled, to the point where governments nominate and approve the scientists who participate and even edit and re-write reports after peer-review is completed.
Climate Change Reconsidered II brings up to date the subject matter of Climate Change Reconsidered: The 2009 Report of the Nongovernmental International Panel on Climate Change (NIPCC), a comprehensive and authoritative critique of the reports of the IPCC. Since the release of that report in June 2009, members of NIPCC have been regularly posting new material for public review on the NIPCC archive website.
A follow-up titled Climate Change Reconsidered: 2011 Interim Report collected and edited articles on climate change appearing on the NIPCC website that were overlooked by the 2009 report or were published after the cutoff date for that report. The volume was written and edited by a team of scientists recruited and led by Craig D. Idso, Robert M. Carter, and S. Fred Singer. It synthesizes all of the research of the first two volumes and adds reviews of new scientific research and interpretation of the same.
General Principles for Preparing Climate Change Reconsidered Chapters
The Editors, Chapter Lead Authors, and Contributing Authors are tasked with considering the scientific, technical, economic, and social issues regarding climate change, and with assessing each issue with scientific objectivity and attention to all relevant evidence, with an emphasis on peer-reviewed scientific findings neglected by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).
Editors and chapter lead authors shall concentrate on their areas of expertise and engage writers and reviewers based on their understanding and knowledge of the specific area of scientific inquiry to which they will attend.
Peer review of CCR-II was conducted expeditiously in a period of time appropriate to the necessary scientific evaluation of the materials presented in each chapter. Attention was directed to the quality of evidence presented and validity of the scientific conclusions drawn in the literature cited.
Qualifications of Editors, Chapter Lead Authors, and Contributing Authors
Editors must hold a doctorate degree in a field of study related to the subject area. Chapter Lead Authors must hold an advanced degree (Ph.D., M.S., or equivalent) in a field of study related to the content of their chapter. Contributing Authors must hold an advanced degree in a related field of study or have at least ten years of experience in a related field.
Preparation of Chapters
Preparation of the draft of the new volume will be undertaken by Chapter Lead Authors in cooperation with the Editors. Research summaries of scientific work that has implications regarding climate change shall be continually posted on the NIPCC website where they shall be available for public inspection and review. The Chapter Lead Authors will coordinate the organization and development of the chapters in consultation with the Editors.
New research reviews from the NIPCC website and any additional relevant scientific studies shall be added to research and commentary that appeared in the earlier volumes in the Climate Change Reconsidered series. Earlier material should be condensed or summarized as necessary to direct attention to the best available research and to indicate when older studies have been superseded by newer research.
Chapters shall typically be organized in chronological order within each subject as much as possible, to ensure that high-quality but older studies are not forgotten or overlooked due to the constant publication of more recent but possibly lower-quality research. A narrative approach also captures a fuller range of views and more insight into scientific progress than relying only on the latest scientific articles in each field.
Writing Process and Guidelines
Acceptable source material for CCR-II is material published in peer-reviewed scientific journals, books published by recognized and credible publishers, or government reports. Priority should always be given to authors willing to make their data available for public inspection and testing.
Recognizing that peer review procedures at some academic journals has been misused to block the publication of research that is contrary to the views of editors or influential figures in the climate science establishment, with the Editor’s approval, consideration will be given to including material from non-peer-reviewed sources when credible and important scientific findings not available elsewhere. All source material shall be cited and referenced according to standard professional protocol.
Lead Chapter Authors and Contributing Authors will work together to create the initial chapter drafts. Editors may assist in this process, if required. Completed chapter drafts will then be submitted to the Editors for peer review.
Editors will qualify the Reviewers and oversee the review process, described in detail below. Editors will review and return Reviewer comments to the respective Lead Chapter Authors. Lead Chapter Authors and Contributing Authors will work to address Reviewer comments and make necessary revisions for the secondary draft. Editors may assist in this process, if required. Completed secondary drafts will then be submitted to the Editors.
Editors will review the secondary drafts and make any necessary changes. The final chapter drafts, after Editors’ review and publisher’s copy editing and layout for publication, will be sent back to the Lead Chapter Authors for approval of a final draft pursuant to publication. Editors have final authority on any disagreements.
Peer Review Procedures and Reviewer Qualifications
Reviewers of CCR-II must hold an advanced degree in a field of study related to the content area of the chapter or have at least ten years of experience in a related field. Reviewers will be required to declare to the Editors their affiliations, qualifications, and any competing interests that might relate to the subject they are reviewing. Chapter Lead Authors and Contributing Authors may not act as Reviewers for material they helped produce.
Reviewers may request revisions, additions, or removal of material. The Editors will not alter any comments made by reviewers that have been intended to be read by the authors, unless the language is deemed inappropriate for professional communication or the comments contain information that is considered confidential. Differences among Reviewers and Chapter Lead Authors concerning the incorporation of Reviewer comments will be resolved by the Editors. The Editors will have final say over disagreements that may arise in the review process.
The identity of a Reviewer will be made known to the authors with the Reviewer’s consent. Authors will be permitted to communicate directly with reviewers, also subject to the Reviewer’s consent.
Selection of Reviewers will be the responsibility of the Editors and will be based on expertise, reputation, specific recommendations of authors, and the Editors’ knowledge of reviewers’ past performance. Those reviewers who wish to be acknowledged in the final report will be, but inclusion will not be required.
Principles for Review
Production and review of chapter materials should be based solely on science and reason. The best available scientific and technical knowledge should be employed to ensure that each chapter attends to the full range of scientific knowledge on each topic and that each issue is presented with scientific objectivity and attention to all relevant evidence. An appropriate circulation process is to be engaged, involving circulation to independent experts not involved in the preparation of the chapter to be reviewed, chosen with reference only to the scientific knowledge and proven analytical ability of the experts in that issue area.
In short, the review process should be objective and attend strictly to the scientific merits of the issues under discussion.
Chapter Lead Authors
Function: Chapter Lead Authors are responsible for ensuring their chapters provide an organized overview of the important scientific, technical, economic, and social issues regarding climate change, assessing each issue with scientific objectivity and attention to all relevant evidence.
Comment: Duties of the Chapter Lead Authors are to ensure that their chapters are produced on time, assess the scientific material presented and convey its implications correctly, and adhere to the style and structure that have been chosen for the book.
The essence of the Chapter Lead Authors’ task is to synthesize the material drawn from the available scientific literature in the ongoing contributions to the NIPCC research archive, in the previous two volumes, and elsewhere. Chapter Lead Authors are responsible for ensuring the Reviewers’ expert comments are considered and text is revised accordingly.
Chapter Lead Authors will have established the ability to produce text that is scientifically and technically accurate and that accurately conveys the current state of scientific knowledge about the vast variety of factors that may affect the world’s climate. Chapter Lead Authors will work to ensure that the full range of factors potentially affecting climate change is given due consideration, including both manmade and natural factors. Deadlines will be sufficient to the task but will be aggressive, to ensure that the volume is released on a timely basis.
Function: To analyze the scientific literature on climate change in their area of study and convey its conclusion and implications through text, figures, and citations for assembly and editing by the Chapter Lead Authors for the chapter drafts.
Comment: Contributing Authors will work to assist the Chapter Lead Authors in researching and composing the initial chapter drafts. Contributing Authors will respond to questions by the Chapter Lead Authors regarding Reviewers’ comments and assist in necessary revisions.
Material provided by Contributing Authors will be supported by references from the peer reviewed literature according to standard professional protocol. Text provided by Contributing Authors will be reviewed, edited, organized, and revised by Editors and Chapter Lead Authors in compiling the overall chapter copy, with the consultation of expert Reviewers.
Function: Reviewers provide expert confirmation of the accuracy and comprehensiveness of the chapter content.
Comment: Reviewers apply their individual knowledge and experience to analyze the text of the report. Multiple reviewers are used to ensure that the scientific materials presented are accurate and that the conclusions drawn regarding the meaning of the scientific evidence are sound. The Editors and Chapter Lead Authors have authority to decide whether to accept or include individual reviewer comments.